Bioaccessibility of trace elements (Li, Be, Ti, Ga, Cu, Ag, Hg, Cd, Cs, Pt, Tl, Pb, As, Cr, Co, Ni, V, Se, Sn and Sb) and major elements (Rb, Ba, Al, Fe, Zn, Si, Ca, Mg, Mn, Mo, Sr, P and K) in tea infusions has been assessed using an in vitro dialyzability protocol. Gastric simulation (using pepsin solution) and intestinal simulation (using pancreatin and bile salts) were used to perform the in vitro digestion. ICP-MS, ICP-OES and FAES were used for elements determination in digested tea leaves, their infusions and the dialyzate fractions from tea infusions. Microwaves assisted acid digestion was used for the total element determination in tea leaves, while tea infusions were prepared by brewing tea leaves for 5 min in boiling water. The LODs for elements determined in tea leaves were in the range of 0.11–656 ng g−1 and 0.02–145.6 μg g−1 for trace and major elements, respectively. For elements’ determination in tea infusions, the LODs were ranged between 0.23 and 399.9 ng L−1 for trace elements and 0.2–1248 μg L−1 for major elements. The LODs for the elements in the dialyzable fraction varied from 0.018 to 142 μg L−1. The accuracy of the total element determination was evaluated using certified reference materials (Tea Leaves INCT-TL-1 and Rye Grass). The analytical recoveries were also assessed for analyzed elements in digested tea leaves (95–114%) and their infusions (92–115%), showing good recoveries. Among the studied elements, K was the most abundant element in tea leaves and tea infusions in almost all samples, followed by Ca, Mg, and P. Zn, Cs, and K showed the highest dialyzability percentages up to 84%, 76%, and 54%, respectively, followed by Si and Ca and K that show moderate to high dialyzability percentages. The accuracy of the dialysis process was evaluated using a mass-balance study.
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Tea, Essential and toxic elements, In-vitro bioavailability, ICP-MS, ICP-OES